Sunday, February 23, 2014


                                                NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
  (Meaning, Scope & Indicators, Role of Education in National Development)

“National development refers to the ability of a country or countries to improve the social welfare of the people, for example, by providing social amenities like good education, infrastructure, medical care and social services.”

“ The foundation of National Development is the development-especially development in social, political, economic, emotional, linguistic and cultural fields”
                                                                                                H.G Johnson

When all the forces and factors endeavor to provide a unity in the integration of national actions and challenges which encourages the people to meet their aspirations and goals related to their personal and social benefits which willingly or unknowingly geared to the national progress is known as National Development.

According to Kothari Commission (1964-66) National Development lies in

a)     Confidence in nation
b)     Continuous rise in standard of living of masses
c)      Reduction of unemployment
d)     Equal opportunities for social, political and economic development
e)     Good and impartial administration
f)       Mutual understanding and sense of co-operation amongst masses

Scope & Indicators of National Development

Scope refers to the range of perceptions, thoughts, or actions and Breadth or opportunity to function.

Political Development
Moral Development
Cultural Development                                                                       Indicators and Scope
Religious Development
Economical Development
Technological Development

BARRIERS in National Development

1. Casteism:
Caste is an imported part of our social fabric. This was developed in the past on the basis of division of labour in the society. But now casteism has segregated the society. Unity and integrity has become a dream in a caste ridden society. The feeling of socially neglected scheduled castes under the suppression of upper caste ruined the sense of we feeling and unity. It becomes a problem for national Development.
2. Communalism:
Religions antagonism has posed a serious challenge to national Development . Political manipulation has projected one religion against the other which resulted in communal riot, bloodbath, mutual, distrust and disintegration of the country. Large scale illiteracy and superstition are responsible along with other causes for raise communalism in the country. It is very difficult to promote national Development under these situations.
3. Linguistic Fanaticism:
Multi-linguism is one of the important characters .e.g. in India it has fifteen officially recognized languages. There are about 1652 languages are spoken in India which shows its diversities. There is conflict and riots on the languages issue. People of one language try to establish their language over others. When Hindi was declared as the national language people of South India resented against this decision supporting English language. Language issue became a barrier on the way of national Development
4. Regionalism:
Each regional differs from the other in one or other ways which leads to disintegration of the country. People of one region compete with the person of other regions which leads to conflict and riots. Land dispute, language problem are some of the reasons which pose hurdle on the way of national Development
5. Social Disparity:
Social disparity among the people of different communities, castes and sometime within the community and caste causes tension and imbalance among the people. Social disparity poses great challenge to national Development
6. Economic Inequalities:
Economic standard of people in a state depends on the fertility of land, resources available and manpower management. All the states are not equal in the above matter which leads to economic backwardness of the people. Even in a state distribution of wealth is not properly done. Day by day poor becoming poorer and rich become richest this causes tension and conflict. It is a problem for national Development
7. Unemployement
8. Illiteracy
9. Poverty
10. Educational Disparaties
11. Ignorance
12. Religious Fanaticism
13. Racism
14. Frustrated Youth
15. Economic Differences
16. Lack of National Character

Role Of Education in National Development
Modern and ancient Philosophers have supported the notion of national development and advocated that education is the most powerful force in developing national development.
1. HRD

2. Emotional Integration

3. Technological Advancements

4. Technical Education

5. Fostering Positive attitude

6. Employment

7. Job oriented Education

8. Removing Illiteracy

9. Educated Elite

10. National Outlook

11. Inculcate Cooperative Responsibility

12. Practical use of Knowledge

13. Strengthen Democratic Principles

14.  Acquaintance with one’s talents and virtues

Values : Importance, Sources, Inculcation of Values


According to Zaleznik and David
“Values are the ideas in the mind of men comparable to norms in that they specify how people should behave. Values also attach degrees of goodness to activities and relationships” 111

I. J lehner and NJ Kube
“Values are the integral part of personal philosophy of life by which we generally mean the system of values by which we live. The philosophy of life includes our aims, ideals and manner of thinking and the principles by which we guide our behavior”114

T. W. Hipple
Values are conscious or unconscious motivators and justifiers of the actions and judgement”

Most often values refer to standards for determining levels of goodness. Values are generally loaded with affective thoughts about ideas, objects, behavior etc. The ultimate good of human society is the good of all. The idea has been beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers

 "Let all be happy free from diseases, let men see well of one-another, let there be no sorrow or unhappiness in this world".

Vedas say: "Speak truth; fulfill your duties, never lax in self- study".

                                      EVER EVOLVING CIRCLE OF VALUES (Draw Circle )
 Frequent re-Affirmation of Values


Values Commitment     

Values Clarification

Values Awareness


Need and Importance

1.       Goals for Achievement : Values are goals set for achievements and they motivate, define and color all our activities cognitive, affective and connative. They are described as the socially defined desires and goals that are internalized through the process of conditioning, learning & socialization.

2.       To Meet the challenges of the times : Every Country develops its own system of education to express and promote its unique Socio-Cultural identity and also to meet the challenges of the times.

3.       Development of personality

4.       Guide your life : they could guide your life minute by minute towards noble goals, rather than your life being controlled by self-serving motives, customs, accidental occurrences, bad habits, impulses, or emotions. You have to know where you are going before you can get there.

5.       Doing Meaningful deeds : Values and morals can not only guide but inspire and motivate you, giving you energy and a zest for living and for doing something meaningful. Sensitivity to a failure to live up to your basic values may lead to unproductive guilt or to constructive self-dissatisfaction which motivates you to improve

6.       Sublimation of instincts

7.       Positive way of life
8.       All around development
9.       Broader outlook
10.   Respect to others
11.   To earn Livelihood
12.   Adjustment to environment and its modification
13.   Promotion of social efficiency
14.   Creation of good citizenship
15.   For interpersonal skills : (Awareness of others, Listening, cooperation)
16.   For intrapersonal Skills : (Self Confidence, self concept, Motivation)

                                Sources of Values :
1.       Home
2.       School
3.       Religion
4.       History
5.       Society
6.       Books
7.       Philosophy
8.       Science
9.       Culture

                                                             Inculcation of Values

                                                                  Value Development
                                                                    Value Education

In School                                                                   Outside school


Knowledge, Understanding
Training to emotions
Habits, Attitudes

                                 Evaluation : Observation,Interview         End Product ; Good
                                                    Written and oral test                      Human Beings

Curricular-Co curricular Activities
Opportunity to practice values

1.       Celebration of National Festivals
2.       Social Service programmes
3.       Emphasis on Unity
4.       Respect of religions
5.       Development of Scientific Temper
6.       Community Prayer in school
7.       Citizenship education
8.       Cultural Programmes
9.       National and international Understanding
10.   Projects
11.   Extension lectures
12.   Books Exhibitions
13.   Values oriented Journals and magazines

14.   Art and Painting Competitions

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Concepts in Education and their Changing Connotations

Connotation is the tone or emotional association that a word has. It can be negative or positive, but is usually something seen by the population in general but in logic, the characteristic or set of characteristics that makes up the meaning of a term and thus defines the objects to which a term can be applied.


Cunningham :- “Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the artist (teacher) to mould  his material (pupils) according to his ideals (aim and objectives) in his studio (school)”

Curriculum is the core of an educational system. While education is a process, curriculum is a means to the process, while education is learning, curriculum signifies situations for learning, While education deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’, curriculum deals with ‘what’.

Brubacher has rightly compared curriculum with the ‘material’ in the construct of the ‘building of education’
Etymologically it is derived from the word ‘currer’ which means to run.
The ground on which the pupils and the teacher cover to reach the goal of education.

According to  Modalior commission :-  “Curriculum includes all the learner’s experiences in or outside that are included in a program which has been devised to help him  develop physically, emotionally, socially, spiritually and morally.”

 “Curriculum is the total effort of the school to bring about desired outcomes in school and out of school situations.”  Sayler and Alexander

Coles (2003) “A curriculum is more than a list of topics to be covered by an educational programme, for which the more commonly accepted word is a ‘syllabus’. A curriculum is first of all a policy statement about a piece of education, and secondly an indication as to the ways in which that policy is to be realised through a programme of action.”


1.       Narrower concept : Earlier Curriculum was considered as a body of subjects or  subject matter prepared by the teacher  for the students to learn it was synonymous to  ‘course of study’ or ‘syllabus’
2.       Priority to art and literature :
3.       Vague
4.       Teacher Centered
5.       Priority to mind and sense
6.       Philosophical approach


1.       Wide and comprehensive
2.       Experience centered
3.       Application of Knowledge and understanding
4.       Higher Position to Research
5.       Systematically Planned
6.       Based on Principle of utility
7.       Child Centered
8.       Psychological approach
9.       Community centered
10.   Interrelation of subjects
11.   Management of leisure
12.   Virtual learning
13.   Problem base curriculum
14.   Distance and correspondence learning
15.   Priority to Science and technology
16.   Co Curricular and Extracurricular activities
17.    All around development


“Learning is the greatest game in life and the most fun. All children are born believing this and will continue to believe this until we convince them that learning is very hard work and unpleasant.” Gordon

“A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers” Gilbert

The word school derived from Greek  (scholÄ“), originally meaning "leisure"


1. Religious Institutions
2. Residential Schools
3. Built by rulers
4. Religious education
5. Teachers as base
6.  Primary Concern of teaching
7. Rigid Discipline
8. Concise Curriculum
9. Only intellectual development


1. Miniature Society
2. Demolished religious Institutions
3. Broad Curriculum
4. Discipline
5. Teacher as Facilitator
6. for Harmonious Development
7. Student as a chief concern
8. Empowerment of teachers
9. Management and administration
10. Technological advancements
11. New teaching & learning techniques
12. New developments in school buildings
13. Changes in society’s attitude towards learning/ learners


Among the greatest of all services that can be rendered by men to Almighty God, is the education and training of children, so that they can foster by grace in the way of salvation, growing like pearls of divine bounty in the shell of education and will be one day the jewel in the crown of abiding glory.

“A ‘teacher’ is a person who delivers an educational program, assesses student participation in an educational program, and/or administers or provides consistent and substantial leadership to an educational program.” Harmer


1.       Dominant Information Feeder
2.        Imparting instruction only
3.       Major source of Knowledge
4.       Syllabus Followers
5.       Technically handicapped
6.       Pre Service Training only
7.       Older Methods of Instruction


1.       Dominant Information Feeder to a Facilitator
2.       Adaptation of Instruction to developmental levels
3.       Friend Philosopher and Guide
4.       Adapting Holistic Approach
5.       A motivator and Encourage Feeder
6.       Emphasis on Learner’s Initiative
7.       Pre Service as well as In service Training
8.       Planner of the learning
9.       Moral Development
10.   Assess the students
11.   Freedom and Control
12.   Experimentation Opportunity
13.   Transforming Information into wisdom
14.   Identifier of Students’ Potentialities
15.   Reviewer and reinforce of students activities

Thursday, August 22, 2013

Western Concept of Education

The question of education has been given particular consideration by many Societies, Western or Indian. By definition, education is a transfer of knowledge from one generation to another; it is a system or practice of teaching and learning. Also in its broadest meaning, “education is any process by which an individual gains knowledge or insight, or develops attitudes or skill”

1. Socrates: "Education means the bringing out of the ideas of universal validity which are latent in the mind of every man".

To him ‘Knowledge is Virtue’  and knowledge can be achieved through knowing oneself so ‘Know thyself’, the way of real knowledge is truth and truth is the way which directly leads to God.

2. Plato was an idealist and he fully realized the needs of human body and soul. According to him "Education of giving to the body and soul all the perfection of which they are susceptible”

-Inculcation of sentiments of love, beauty and goodness
               TRUTH                           GOODNESS                                      BEAUTY

Intellectual Development            Ethical Development                             Aestheticism

(Philosophy, Logic,                        (Ethics, Morals, Values)                    (Art, Music, Painting)

Mathematics, Language

Geography, Science, History)

-Harmonizing the personality of child

3. Aristotle: "Education is the art of acquiring happiness and not the pursuit of pleasure”
He lays emphasis on making an individual a good human being, he states ‘In virtue of each, the virtue of all is involved’
                                                                         Education of the Body

  3 aspects of education                                   Education of the character

                                                                               Education of the intellect

4. Rousseau: According to him there are 3 different sources of education

a)  Education by Nature : “The constitutional exertion of our organs and faculties is the education of Nature”
It restores the unsophisticated man whose sole function is to be a man. In the natural order of things, all men being equal, their common vocation is manhood.

b) Education given by men : “The uses we are taught to make of that exertion constitutes the education given by men”
c) Education from circumstances: The acquisition made by our own experiences”

                                          Two Types of education

A} Negative type of education: “I call negative education that which tends to perfect the organs that are the instruments of the knowledge, and before giving this knowledge directly and that endeavours to prepare the way for reason by proper exercise of the sense. A negative education does the time of idleness, far from it. It does not give virtues, it projects from vice. It does not inculcate truth. It projects from errors.

B] Positive Education:  “ I call positive education one that tends to form the mind prematurely and to instruct the child in the duties that belongs to man.”

5. Froebel: “Education is unfoldment of what is already enfolded in the germ. It is the process through which the child makes internal external"
Froebel's Meaning of education rested on  basic ideas of
a)      free self expression and creativity
b)      social participation
c)       motor expression.

6. John Dewey: “I believe that the only true education comes through the stimulation of the child's powers by the demands of the social situations in which he finds himself.”
Social View : What the best and wisest parent want for his own child, that must the community want for all of its children

7. Herbert Spencer: "Education is complete living".
Spencer was an agnostic who believed that the only way to gain knowledge was through a scientific approach.  He felt that religion was a futile attempt to gain knowledge of the unknown

Indian Concept of Education

The most important contribution of ancient India not only for India but also for the world is in the field of education. It may also be remembered that education is not an abstract term. It is manifested in the cultural economic, individual, philosophical, scientific, social and spiritual advancement. In other words, education is the means for developing the mind for the betterment of the individual and society. Seen from this perspective, the following views of great scholars and thinkers deserve mention.

Albert Einstein:-
“We owe a lot to the Indians who taught us how to count without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have made.”

Mark Twain, an American Writer:-
“India is the cradle of the human race. Most valuable and the most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only.”

Lancelot Hagen, in his publication Mathematics for the Millions:-
“There has been no more revolutionary contribution than the one which the Hindus made when they invented zero.”


According to Rigveda “Education is that which makes man self reliant and selfless”

According to Upnishads “ Education is that whose end product is salvation”

Vedantic View of Education “We need an education that quickens, that vivifies, that kindles the urge of spirituality”

Dr. A. S. Altekar says that the Brahmanic education aimed at “Infusion of a spirit of piety and religiousness, formation of character, development of personality, inculcation of civil and social sense, promotion of social efficacy, & preservation and spread of national culture.”

 1. Knowledge:
Education is knowledge. It is mans third eye. This aphorism means that knowledge opens mans inner eye, flooding him with spiritual and divine light, which forms the provision for man‘s journey through life. Through education, the development of every aspect of human life become possible. Knowledge protects an individual like a mother, inspires him to follow the path of good conduct as father does, and gives the pleasure that one‘s wife provides.

2. Infusion of Spiritual & Religious Values:

The primary aim of ancient education was instilling into the minds, of pupils a spirit of being pious and religious for glory of God and good of man. The pursuit of knowledge was a pursuit of religious values. The life of the pupil was full of ritual acts. Prayers were common every pupil was required to perform religious ceremonies duly. He had to participate in all religious festivals. Education without religions instructions was not education at all. It was believed that a keener appreciation of spiritual values could be fostered only through a strict observance if religious rites.

3. Character Development

In no period of the History of India, was so much stress laid on character building as in the Vedic period Vyas Samhita states, ―The result of education is good character and good behaviour. A conquest does not make a hero nor studies a wise – woman. He who has conquered his senses is the real hero. He who practices virtue in really wise.‖ Wisdom consisted in the practice of moral values. Control of senses and practice of virtues made one a man of character. Moral excellence could come only through praticising moral values. Example was better than precept. The teacher and the taught were ideals of morality, for both practiced it all through their lives.

4. Development of Civic Responsibilities and Social Values:

The inculcation of civic virtues and social values was an equally important objective of education in India. The Brahmachari after his education in the Gurukulas went back to the society to serve the rich and the poor, to relieve the diseased and the distressed. He was required to be hospitable to the guests and charitable to the needy. After a certain period of studies he was required to become a householder and to perpetuate his race and transmit his culture to his own off springs.

5. Personality Development:

The Guru in the ancient times realized that the development of personality is the sole aim of education. Human personality was regarded as the supreme work of God. The qualities of self-esteem, self confidence, self restraint and self respect were the personality traits that the educator tried to incukate in his pupils through example.

6. Preserving and Diffusing National Culture:

Vedic culture was kept intact and transmitted through word of mouth to succeeding generations. Every individual was required to commit to memory at least a portion of the sacred scriptures. Everyone was required to serve as a medium of transmission. The members of the priestly class learnt the whole of Vedic Literature by heart & passed it on.


1. Self Control
2. Renunciation
3. Liberation (Self reliant, Individual efforts)


Quran’ first word is IQRA which means “Seek Knowledge”
According to Tirmidhi
“A single scholar of religion is more formidable against shaitaan than thousand devout person”

1- Religious Objective:
It refers to the Quran as the primary source of knowledge, as well as the Sunnah of the Prophet, and aims at developing the Muslim personality that believes in Allah, his prophets, angels, revealed books, day of judgment and destiny along with reviving the Islamic rites, sticking to its instructions and spreading its teachings amongst future generations.

2- Worldly Objective:
It is not less important than the religious objective as the noble verses of the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet have repetitively stressed on the importance of acquiring knowledge and seeking after it for every Muslim individual. The Quran and the Sunnah have furthermore emphasized on the vitality of benefiting from Allah’s blessings in the Universe, urging Muslims to seek after their well-being and secure a good livelihood by earning money through legal means; such as trade, manufacturing or agriculture … etc.
Islamic education has sought to intermediate between those two objectives and work on striking harmony and balance between them, thereby fulfilling the famous statement of Imam Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, “Work for your temporal world as if you will live forever; and work for the Hereafter as if you will die tomorrow.”

3- ‘Knowledge for the Sake of Knowledge' Objective:
This objective reflects the spiritual pleasure of acquiring knowledge, and it is the motivation that sets human individuals on the quest for truth, to seek after knowledge and embark on a journey of learning and research, just for the pleasure of learning.


1. Nirvana
2. Demolishing Blind Faith
3. Control of Sense and mind
4. Non Violence
5. Truthfulness


MK Gandhi “ By education I mean an all around drawing out of best in child and man- mind body and spirit”

1. All Round Development
In our national perception education is essentially for all. This is fundamental to our all round development material and spiritual.

2. Acculturating Role { process of cultural and psychological change}

Education has an acculturating role. It refines sensitivities and perceptions that contribute to national cohesion, a scientific temper and independence of mind and spirit – thus furthering the goal of socialism, secularism and democracy enshrined in our Constitution.

3. Development of Manpower

Education develops manpower for different levels of the economy. It is also a substrate on which research and development flourish, being the ultimate gurantee of national self-reliance.

4. Unique Investment

Education is a unique investment in the present and the future. This cardinal principle is the key to the National Policy of Education.

Monday, March 4, 2013

Change In Teacher's Role and Learner's Participation

Role Of Teacher
Among the greatest of all services that can be rendered by men to Almighty God, is the education and training of children, so that they can foster by grace in the way of salvation, growing like pearls of divine bounty in the shell of education and will be one day the jewel in the crown of abiding glory.

Traditional Role :
Teacher’s Role as instructor as based on concept of  Knowledge. Teacher was a Dominator.
Modern Role:
1.       Dominant information feeder  to a facilitator.
2.       Concept of knowlwdge as  process of reasoning.
3.       Adaptation of Instruction to developmental levels.
4.       Monitoring students
5.       Resource providers
6.       assess the students
7.       plan the learning.
8.       implement the plan
9.       evaluate the process.
10.   opportunity for experimentation without evaluation, grading or marking.
11.   Adopting Holistic Approach
12.   Freedom and Control
13.   Optimal Learning
14.   A Motivator and encourage feeder
15.   Moral Development
16.   Thematic teaching
17.   Facilitative Teacher as Mediator : The function of techer as mediator is to promote students confident adaptability by enhancing their security and making them aware of their own powers and their own worth. The teacher in modern scenario would strengthen the confidence of the students in their own capabilities.
18.   Emphasis on learner’s initiative

Learner’s participation
Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. As far as learner is concerned even bad times have their scientific values and a good learner never miss it.
1.       Profound faith  in capable of solving problems
2.       persistent in examining their own assumptions
3.       Learning from the experiences and interests
4.       Interaction with other
5.       Pair and group activities
6.       Learning by doing
7.       irrevocable resolution to every problem
8.       Ability to take constructive criticism
9.       show initiative
10.   able to monitor and evaluate their own learning
11.   self-aware in relation to their own learning
12.   adaptable and flexible in their approach to learning
13.   pro-active (i.e. they don’t wait for things/people to come to them)
14.   critical and analytical thinker
15.    filtering and selecting the needed information
16.   learning as pleasurable
17.   Goal-oriented
18.   Practical
19.   Competence and mastery
20.   Learning by experience
21.   Responsible for Self
22.   Need for Community.